Challenging Super PACs

“Super PACs” are political committees that promise to make only “independent” expenditures. As we explained in 2015, there are significant cracks in the legal foundation that created super PACs, and several converging developments in election law, constitutional law and even criminal law suggest the end may be in sight.

Free Speech For People has demonstrated critical leadership in the fight to end super PACs. Here’s a roadmap to some of our key work.

The vulnerable lower court ruling that created super PACs

Contrary to a common misunderstanding, super PACs were not created by the Supreme Court’s Citizens United decision, but by a later decision of a lower federal court of appeals, v. FECIn SpeechNow, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit concluded that the federal law limiting contributions to political action committees to $5,000 per person per year did not apply to political committees that promised to make only “independent” expenditures. As explained by scholars and experts in political corruption and constitutional law, the SpeechNow ruling was legally erroneous at the time under Supreme Court precedent (including Citizens United).

Unfortunately, then-Attorney General Eric Holder decided not to appeal SpeechNow to the Supreme Court, on the (clearly mistaken in retrospect) theory that the SpeechNow decision would “affect only a small subset of federally regulated contributions.” This prediction, like the court’s speculation that contributions to super PACs could not lead to corruption or the appearance of corruption, has proven incorrect with time. To this day, the Supreme Court has not reviewed the question. As a result, super PACs have become one of the primary vehicles for wealthy donors to evade campaign contribution limits designed to prevent corruption and the appearance of corruption.

Meanwhile, Chief Justice Roberts has given signals that suggest that he would be willing to sustain limits on contributions to super PACs even within the framework of Citizens United.


  • NewsweekWho blew the lid off campaign contributions? (Dec. 10, 2015) (Albert Alschuler and Laurence Tribe)
  • U.S. NewsThe beginning of the end of the super PAC? (Nov. 4, 2015) (Ron Fein)

Lieu v. FEC: the lawsuit that could end super PACs

Free Speech For People and an all-star team of legal scholars are representing a bipartisan coalition of Members of Congress and 2016 congressional candidates in a lawsuit challenging an earlier lower court decision that created super PACs.  The lawsuit, now preparing for U.S. Supreme Court review, seeks the reversal of the 2010 federal appeals court ruling in v. FEC, which created super PACs. We are honored to represent Senator Jeff Merkley (D-OR) and Representative Ted Lieu (D-CA-33), as well as the late Representative Walter Jones (R-NC-3), along with three 2016 congressional candidates from both major parties.

To learn more, visit our Lieu v. FEC page.

Cutting-edge legislation to end super PACs

Free Speech For People has researched, drafted, and fought for state and local legislation to limit contributions to independent expenditure committees, thus effectively ending super PACs.

To learn more, visit the pages for our legislative campaigns:


Stay updated on Free Speech For People’s work to challenge super PACs!


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